Our 3-D structure has different levels of porosity that is advantageous for its physical and biological properties. While hydroxyapatite has been proven to induce bone regeneration, it is also notoriously tricky to work with. Clinical products that use hydroxyapatite or other calcium phosphate ceramics are hard and brittle. To compensate for that, previous researchers created structures composed mostly of polymers, but this shields the activity of the bioceramic. Shahs bone biomaterial, however, is 90 percent by weight hydroxyapatite and just 10 percent by weight polymer, and it still maintains its elasticity because of the way its structure is designed and printed. The high concentration of hydroxyapatite creates an environment that induces rapid bone regeneration. Cells can sense the hydroxyapatite and respond to its bioactivity, Shah said. When you put stem cells on our scaffolds, they turn into bone cells and start to up-regulate their expression of bone-specific genes. This is in the absence of any other osteo-inducing substances. Its just the interaction between the cells and the material itself. bunion vs bone spurThats not to say that other substances couldnt be combined into the ink. Because the 3-D printing process is performed at room temperature, Shahs team was able to incorporate other elements, such as antibiotics, into the ink. We can incorporate antibiotics to reduce the possibility of infection after surgery, Shah said.
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There is no treatment for this disease and usually this condition disappears with time. When the area turns red it is an indication that the blood cells are heating the muscles. Even if you know that a leg or ankle injury is the reason behind the swelling, it is better to consult an orthopaedic doctor to find out the extent of damage. Anticoagulants, also referred to as blood thinners are available in pill form but can also be administered intravenously. People affected by obesity, structural foot abnormalities, or a defective gait are also at an increased risk. Hip pain is experienced on one side, however, pain in both hips is also observed. On the other hand, ankle pain followed by swelling is common, and usually treated with application of ice to decrease the inflammation. Consult a doctor immediately, if you notice any infected blisters and sores on your swollen foot.